Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Apollo is the Greek God of the sun, light, music, truth, healing, poetry, and prophesy, and one of the most well-known gods in Greek mythology. Known as the ideal of youth and athleticism, Apollo is the son of the Zeus and Leto; and his twin sister, Artemis, is the goddess of the moon and the hunt. Like many of the Greek Gods, Apollo has many symbols. These symbols were usually associated with the great accomplishments those deities made or pertained to the domains over which they ruled. Symbols ofÃ ApolloÃ Bow and arrowsThe lyreThe ravenRays of light radiating from his headBranch of laurelWreath What Apollos Symbols Mean Apollos silver bow and arrow represent his defeat of the monster Python (or Phython). Python was a serpent who lived near Delphi, considered the center of the earth. In a frenzy of jealousy over Zeus infidelity with Leda, Hera sent Python to chase Leto away: at the time, Leto was pregnant with the twins Apollo and Artemis, and their birth was delayed. When Apollo was grown, he shot the Python with arrows and took over Delphi as his own shrine. The bow and arrow symbol is also a reference to Apollo as the god of plagues who shot plague arrows at the enemy during the Trojan war. DEA / G. DAGLI ORTI / Getty Images The lyreÃ¢â¬âwhich is perhaps his most well-known symbolÃ¢â¬âsignifies that Apollo is the god of music. In ancient myths, the god Hermes created the lyre and gave it to Apollo in exchange for the rod of healthÃ¢â¬âor for the cows that the mischievous Hermes had stolen from Apollo. Apollos lyre has the power to turn itemsÃ¢â¬âlike stonesÃ¢â¬âinto musical instruments. De Agostini / G. Nimatallah / Getty Images The raven is a symbol of Apollos anger. Once all ravens were white birds or so goes the myth, but after delivering bad news to the god he scorched the wings of the raven so that all ravens going forward were black. The bad news brought by the bird was that of the infidelity of his lover Coronis who, pregnant with Asclepius, fell in love and slept with Ischys. When the raven told Apollo of the affair, he became enraged that the bird had not pecked out Ischys eyes, and the poor raven was an early example of the messenger being shot. Tomisti / Wikimedia CommonsÃ / CC BY-SA 3.0 Apollo God of the Sun The rays of light that radiate from Apollos head symbolize that he is the god of the sun. According to the Greek myth, each morning Apollo rides a golden flaming chariot across the sky bringing daylight to the world. In the evening his twin, Artemis, goddess of the moon, rides her own chariot across the sky bringing darkness.Ã Apollo is symbolized by rays of light. CorbisÃ / Getty Images The branch of laurels was actually something Apollo wore as a sign of his love for the demigod Daphne. Unfortunately, Daphne was cursed by the Goddess Eros to have a hatred of love and lust. It was an act of revenge against Apollo who claimed he was a better archer than Eros. Eventually, after Daphne grew tired of Apollos chasing she begged her father the river god Peneus for help. He turned Daphne was into a laurel tree to escape the love of Apollo. The laurel wreath that Apollo wears is a symbol of victory and honor, which was used in Greek times to identify the victors in athletic competitions, including the Olympics. Apollos wreath combines the laurel for Daphne, the coronal effect of the suns rays, and the beauty and power of young, beardless, athletic men.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The learning goals for this course incorporate a combination of personal fears and topics which are needed to improve my standing as a professional nurse. The first learning goal of this course is understanding the research process. This will be covered in module four of the course. The basic understanding of the framework of the research process is an important first step in deciphering the verbosity of research studies. Individuals attempting to research a problem and those reading and studying the research data must be able to determine the primary goal of the study to determine its relevance to the situation. Module four will provide the needed insight in the quest for achieving this learning goal. The second learning goal for this course centers on the subjects of qualitative and quantitative research. According to the Qualitative Research Consultants Association, qualitative research is defined as research Ã¢â¬Å"designed to reveal a target audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s range of behavior and the perceptions that drive it with reference to specific topics or issuesÃ¢â¬ (Qualitative Research Consultants Association, 2015, para 2). Conversely, quantitative research is defined asÃ¢â¬ any research based on something that can be accurately and precisely measuredÃ¢â¬ (University of Wisconsin-Madison Ebling Library, 2016). The understanding of these terms and their place in nursing research will be required in the synthesis of data acquired through research. Modules that will address these topics are three andShow MoreRelatedGoals Of Professional Socialization785 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesProfessional socialization has four goals: (1) to learn the technology of the profession- the facts, ski lls, and theory, (2) to learn to internalize the professional culture, (3) to find a personally and professionally acceptable version of the role, and (4) to integrate this professional role into all of the other life roles (Masters, p. 174). In the first goal, it is our duty to stay in touch with advancing technology. This advancement allows more efficient and precise diagnostics. We are learningRead MoreEvaluation Of A Nursing Internship Experience Based On An Educational Program For Wound Assessment And Documentation1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesoccurrences. Mastered prepared nurses play an important role in organizational performance and the delivery of quality patient care. 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The skill of reflection is essential to the development of clinical knowledge and ability which allows the learner to consider personal and professional skills and identify needs for ongoing development (Levett-Jones et al, 2011). This reflection will allow me to analyse the goal of nursing patients with Multi-Resistant Organisms (MROs), I planned to learn and understand at the beginning of the course, evaluate my professional growth and obtain conclusionsRead MoreLifelong Learning Plan And Role Analysis Essay1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Lifelong Learning Plan and Role Analysis Dimietris D. Thompson Sacred Heart University Lifelong Learning Plan and Role Analysis The Future of Nursing report of 2010 called for the increase in the number of bachelor-prepared nurses in the workforce to be at 80% by 2020 (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2015). The goal is to encourage nurses to achieve higher education and seek lifelong learning. Lifelong learning, however, goes beyond advanced degreesRead MoreProfessional Development Plan For An Advanced Practice Nurse Essay1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Professional Development Plan Adetola Okutubo Walden University NURS 6001, Spring Qtr. 02/29-05/22-PT3, Foundations of Graduate Study April 3, 2016 Professional Development Plan In furtherance of a lifelong desire to become an advanced practice nurse, I herewith articulate my professional development plan (PDP) based on Walden UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s program of study (POS), in alignment with my personal and professional goals. I welcome this opportunity to begin the development of professional portfolioRead MoreProgram Of Study And The Professional Development Plan901 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStudy and the Professional Development Plan The program of study I have selected is the Masters of Science in Nursing Education Bachelors of Science in Nursing (BSN) track. 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Thus, planning for my career direction, setting goals and knowing myselfRead MoreThe Standards Of Professional Nursing Practice860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The American Nurses Association (ANA) established The Standards of Professional Nursing Practice (2010). The Standards of Professional Nursing Practice consists of Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance. The standards serve as guidelines to define the profession of nursing and define the scope of practice for professional nurses. All standards presented in the The Standards of Professional Nursing Practice (2010) are essential for the nursing professional to function, legally
Question: What are The main roles and responsibilities in The Internship Program? Answer: The main roles and responsibilities in the internship program are to support the business analysts of the organization in the process of mapping and data changes. The person has to check the progress of any software. If required, the person will have to analyze the data and test the cases. As an intern, the person ahs to support the business analysts as well as the business team to track any error or resolve any issue. The internship will help the individual is developing skills in SDLC methodologies, the root cause analysis and also brush up the project management skills. The individual will also gain knowledge about the six-sigma principles and the corporate finance. The knowledge under corporate finance includes the balance sheet, peripherals of loan and deposits and the person will be able to carry out ratio analysis. In the professional world, the six-sigma principles will help the person in handling customers in a better manner (Antony et al. 2012). Customers who have problems with the use of any technology needs to be handled carefully and intelligently. The internship program will be helpful for the individual because it will give technical knowledge as well as knowledge of handling the customers. The person will be able to handle the customers properly by teaming it up with the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) methodologies (Leau et al. 2012). Once a person will have the knowledge about the software development, resolving an issue will even easier. References Antony, J., Krishan, N., Cullen, D. and Kumar, M., 2012. Lean Six Sigma for higher education institutions (HEIs) Challenges, barriers, success factors, tools/techniques.International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management,61(8), pp.940-948. Leau, Y.B., Loo, W.K., Tham, W.Y. and Tan, S.F., 2012. Software development life cycle AGILE vs traditional approaches. InInternational Conference on Information and Network Technology(Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 162-167).
Thursday, April 23, 2020
The Lady from Shanghai Film Noir Paper In classical Greek mythology, the sirens were creatures, which would sing so beautifully that sailors would wreck their ships and drown. Another creature in classical Greek mythology was Circe, a beautiful witch who would destroy the men who came to her island by turning them into animals. How does Orson Welles update these classical Greek elements and put them into his film? Why does he make use of these figures from classical mythology in order to tell a story set in the modern world? The lady From Shanghai movie is a film noir. The movie is a commercial Hollywood film and at the same time an Ã¢â¬Å"art filmÃ¢â¬ . One of the aspects of the Ã¢â¬Å"art filmÃ¢â¬ is symbolism. Welles forced us into it is symbolic subtext in order to understand it is logic. He updated classical Greek elements and put them into his film. I think the reason why Welles is using mythology to tell a story set in modern world is because mythology gives meaning to human experience. Myths are ancient, but timeless stories that stretch the bounds of daily understanding. Elsa symbolized the Sirens. She is a beautiful woman who lured Michael to fulfill her selfish desire. She wanted her husband dead. Elsa is also compared to Circe (the daughter of Helios). Just before Michael passed out from the effects of the pills, he denounced her as a blonde Circe. He sticks the gun into her ribs. He told Elsa that she killed Grisby and she is the killer. Elsa, as Circe created unsubstantial image of beasts in men. 2. A story within a story: How does the Chinese play in the film reflect the events themes of the movie itself? Michael runs into the Chinatown where he ducks inside the Mandarin Theatre, during the performance of a costumed, stylized oriental play. We will write a custom essay sample on The Lady from Shanghai Film Noir specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Lady from Shanghai Film Noir specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Lady from Shanghai Film Noir specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The Chinese theatre scene is central to the meaning of The Lady From Shanghai. The meaning of this scene is Ã¢â¬Å"the alienation effectÃ¢â¬ . The play on stage revealed ElsaÃ¢â¬â¢s true intentions. This scene comes in a moment, when audience needed some answers. I think Welles gave us a little exposition to clear things up before he takes us to the House of Mirrors. 3. Discuss the scene in the House of Mirrors towards the end of the film. What is the symbolic importance of mirror images appearing and then being broken or shattered? ElsaÃ¢â¬â¢s servants kidnapped Michael to a deserted amusement park, closed for the season. I the hall of mirrors Elsa and Bannister murder one another in the fragmented shards of glass. The symbolic importance of mirror images appearing and then being broken it is that not only their bodies are being terminated, but their self-images, self-esteem, and personal legacies being shattered as well. When the mirrors are destroyed than we can see whom Elsa really is. Before Michael descended into the hall of mirrors, he twice passes signs that say: Ã¢â¬Å"STAND UP OR GIVE UPÃ¢â¬ . When Michael enters the hall of mirrors, the distorted images of him suggested potential lost of selfhood. . Give a detailed example of a montage from this film. For this question, you may use any example except the siren scene, the Chinese play scene, and the mirror scene, as these have been discussed above. Montage in The Lady From Shanghai is used in flashback to explain the past, ongoing actions and illustration of characterÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts. The scene in aquarium, when Michael met with Elsa it i s an example of a montage. There are an octopus and shark in the big tanks. Octopus is a symbol of conspiracy; shark is a symbol of power, unpredictable, dangerous. When Elsa and Michael kissed in the aquarium, the sharks made sinister passes in the tanks behind them. Michael does not know it that he is on his way to be eaten by his lover. This means the fragility of existence, the absurdity of reality, and the lie in love. When Michael OÃ¢â¬â¢Hara delivered a speech about the cannibal sharks; the metaphor perfectly describes the group of people with whom he traveled. 5. Explain how The Lady From Shanghai is both commercial Hollywood film and at the same time an Ã¢â¬Å"art filmÃ¢â¬ ? Give specific examples from the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s plot, characters, and setting. The Lady From Shanghai is a commercial Hollywood film and at the same time an Ã¢â¬Å"art filmÃ¢â¬ . The film has an art film aspects like: symbolism, social realism style, focus on thoughts and dreams of character, use of montage, close-ups, nonlinear plot, targeted selected type of audience. Examples supporting art film are: symbolism Ã¢â¬â the Sirens, Circa, the courtroom scene, Bannister named their yacht Ã¢â¬Å"The CirceÃ¢â¬ . When Elsa springs a trap of seduction and deception on Michael, she first leads him down back alleys until they reach a spot where a large pig is wallowing in the street (Circe) etc. Use of montage Ã¢â¬â juryÃ¢â¬â¢s chairs arrange as a chessboard, Judges playing chess, scene in aquarium. The film has also commercial film aspects like: making money, targeting general audience, linear plot, overlapping dialogues, violence, music aspects, soft focus, deliberately stylized glamor, commercial. Examples supporting commercial film are: use of overlapping dialogues Ã¢â¬â Chinese theater. Soft focus Ã¢â¬â glamorous soft-focus extreme close- ups of ElsaÃ¢â¬â¢s face. Violence Ã¢â¬â triple murder. Commercial Ã¢â¬â scene on the yacht interrupted by Glosso Lusto Ã¢â¬â hair care product commercial.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Culture, ideology, politics and economics are linked in the output of media organisation in way that is true for no other sector of capitalist enterprise The WritePass Journal
Culture, ideology, politics and economics are linked in the output of media organisation in way that is true for no other sector of capitalist enterprise Introduction Culture, ideology, politics and economics are linked in the output of media organisation in way that is true for no other sector of capitalist enterprise IntroductionCritical AnalysisConclusionBibliographyRelated Introduction Although some might believe otherwise, the media is not a neutral or objective institution. It is rather a disputed space that can be manipulated to serve certain interests. McNair (2007:103) affirms that Ã¢â¬Å"culture, ideology, politics and economics are linked in the output of media organisation.Ã¢â¬ This statement is especially true of the UK newspaper industry. McQuail (2008:7) also argues that power structures social relationships and that this has an effect on the way the mass media is organized. Both historically and presently the influence of the media can be observed. Newspapers promote certain ideologies, create and reinforce cultural patterns, and greatly influence views on politics. Media products that are made for mass consumption are often controlled by a handful of wealthy owners. This is very similar to what Karl Marx calls the Ã¢â¬ËbourgeoisieÃ¢â¬â¢ or the owners of the means of production. They are in control of factories and the livelihoods of workers. How ever, in much the same way, media production serves the interests of the few, and not those of the masses. The ruling class often determines the content of widely distributed newspapers. In support of McNair, I will argue that media output is very closely linked to culture, ideology, and politics, in a way that is advantageous to those who own the means of production. In order to show this, I will discuss all factors (culture, ideology, politics, and economics) in relation to each other and analyse the influence that the newspaper industry has had historically on political, economic, and cultural affairs. The paper will mainly look at 18th century, 19th century, and present press and media output in Britain. Critical Analysis The struggle over control of newspaper content is also an economic struggle between the bourgeoisie and the workers or the lower classes. This is a conflict that mirrors the Marxist notion of class struggle. Starting as far back as the 18th century, the UK ruling class has fought to destroy radical newspapers of the time, such as Poor ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Guardian, Twopenny, and Republican. The aims of the radical press were to promote class organisations through the development of a critical political analysis. Class organizations and unions were meant to earn workers better wages and more rights. Thus, by developing radical newspapers, the working class sought to improve their economic condition. This is an example of the struggle between the aristocracy and the workers who were criticising corruption and the repressive taxation which was impoverishing them (Curran 2010:13). Here, politics is also interrelated to the media and to economics. It was only through adopting a critical political analysis that workers could advocate for their rights. On the other hand, the politics of the right (or the wealthy owners) represent their economic interest of keeping the wealth and control of the press in the hands of few. The emergence of more progressive publications in the early 1800s showed how the ideology of the ruling classes was in opposition of radicalism. Their politics served to prevent the workers from gaining more control of the media output. Between 1830 and 1836 there was an increase in circulation of radical newspapers. In London alone, the readership grew from half a million to 2 million. Dr Philmore,Ã a member of Parliament, complained that Ã¢â¬Å"these infamous publications [Ã¢â¬ ¦] inflame working peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s passions, and awaken their selfishness, contrasting their present condition with what they contented to be their future condition- a condition incompatible with human nature, and with those immutable laws which providence has established for the regulation of human society Ã¢â¬Å" (Curran 2010 : 14). In other words, the rich believed that it is their right to maintain their social and economic standing. In response to radicalism, they sought to pass regulations that wou ld control the media output. This implied that they could promote the views that would benefit their own economic and social condition.Ã As already seen, those who can control media output use this resource to promote their ideology, culture, and politics. In this way, they also maintain their wealth. In order to silence the voice of radical newspapers in the 1800s, the government decided to introduce the stamp duty, which meant that publications were redefined to include political periodicals. Curran and Seaton (2010) also note that during those days, the government sought to increase press taxation. This was to ensure that those in charge of the press are wealthy men of high social standing. Curran and Seaton explain that the reason behind stamp duty was Ã¢â¬Å"to restrict the readership to a well to do by raising the cover price; and to restrict the ownership to the propertied class by increasing the publishing cost Ã¢â¬Å" (Curran and Seaton 2010:11). This shows how economics plays a big role in restricting those who do not have the necessary means from promoting their own ideology, politics, and culture. The example clearly illustrates the link between economics, culture, and politics that McNair talks about. It also portrays, once again, how those who own the means of produc tion can promote the ideologies that benefit them. Over time, those who were financially in control of the media used this to their advantage and slowly began to take radicalism out of the picture. It became the norm that only those who have enough capital could have a say in politics and influence the ideology of the masses. In the late 19th century, whenÃ some control methods failed and stamp laws were repealed, the press establishment embarked on a Ã¢â¬Å"sophisticated strategy of social controlÃ¢â¬ , where the radical newspapers were replaced by apolitical, commercial publications, read by mass audiences and controlled by capital (McNair 2009:87). According to McNair (2009), the radical publications of the end of the 19th century had either been forced out of existence, moved right politically, or become small specialist publications. As newspapers became cheaper and the market expanded, capital investment and running costs increased beyond the capacity of radical publishers. Thus, radical voices were once again silenced. Th is shows that the output of news is greatly influenced by the ownership and capital, as only the wealthy are powerful enough to determine the course of media production. Currently, it can be said that media output in the newspapers is still dependant on who owns the enterprise, what are their politics, and what kind of ideology and culture they want to promote. Oftentimes, the output does not necessarily reflect the truth, but rather takes the form that is best suited to serve the interests of the few. It is not uncommon for stories to be censored or even not published at all. To illustrate this, Anthony Bevins (1997:47) argues that Ã¢â¬Å"Journalists cannot ignore the pre-set Ã¢â¬Ëtaste Ã¢â¬Ëof their newspapers, use their own sense in reporting the truth of the any event, and survive. They are ridden by news desks and backbenches executives, have their stories spiked on a systematic basis, they face the worst sort of newspaper punishment Ã¢â¬âbyline deprivation.Ã¢â¬ Conclusion The history of newspaper publishing in the UK shows that economic interests influence media output immensely. I have argued that, historically, culture, ideology, politics, and economics are all interrelated influences on the content of media. In order to show this, my paper has looked at historical events that have had an impact on the course that the media (especially newspapers) has taken during the past few hundred years. Starting with the 18th century, the press has been a battlefield between the rich and the poor. Radical newspapers fought to have a say in politics. Unfortunately, those who had more wealth and invested more capital were the ones able to take control of the press. With the control of the press also came the promotion of certain ideologies. The ruling class favoured the politics that went against the interests of the workers. Politicians and capitalists alike strived to protect their standing.Ã The stamp duty is an example of measures that they were taking to ensure that radical media output does not grow enough to influence political views. Even though this measure did not last, the effect that commercialization has had on newspapers and media output, in general, is still evident. Those who own media corporations prefer an apolitical and commercial approach. Over time, the voices of workers with radical demands have stopped being heard in the mainstream media. Moreover, even the practices of journalists nowadays are influenced by this approach to media as a profit driven enterprise. The relevance of stories is often determined based on commercial appeal and sensationalism, rather than facts. Stories can be censored and facts hidden. Economics, as well as politics are mainly to blame for these developments. McNair (2009) sums up this interrelationship perfectly through his work. The fact that politics, economics, culture, and ideology play a big role in determining media output is undeniable. Although this is unlikely to change in the ne ar future, it is important to know whose politics and interests influence what we read, hear, and see in the media. Bibliography Curran, J. and Seaton. Power Without Responsibility : Press, Broadcasting and the Internet in Britain. Routledge, Abingdon, 2010. McNair, B. News and Journalism In the UK . Routlege, London, 2003. McQuail D. Mass Communication. SAGE, London, 2008. Tumber H. News : A Reader. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999. Wahl-Jorgensen, K. Hanitzsch, T. The Handbook of Journalism Studies. Taylor Francis, Abingdon, 2009.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The Prison-Industrial Complex Is prison overcrowding a vexing problem or a tempting opportunity? It depends on whether you see theÃ nearly 2Ã million Americans locked in prison cellsÃ asÃ aÃ tragicÃ collection of misspent lives or aÃ vast self-sustaining supply of cheap labor. To be sure, the growing prison-industrial complex, for better or worse, views the inmate population as the latter. Derived from theÃ Cold War-eraÃ term Ã¢â¬Å"military-industrial complex,Ã¢â¬ the term Ã¢â¬Å"prison-industrial complexÃ¢â¬ (PIC) refers to a combination of private-sector and government interests that profit fromÃ increasedÃ spending on prisons, whether it is truly justified or not. Rather than a covert conspiracy, the PIC is criticized as a convergence of self-serving special interest groups that openly encourage new prison construction, while discouraging the advancement of reforms intended to reduce the inmate population. In general, the prison-industrial complex is made up of: Politicians who play on fear by running on Ã¢â¬Å"get tough on crimeÃ¢â¬ platforms.State and federalÃ lobbyistsÃ who represent prison industries and the companies that profit from cheap prison labor.Depressed rural areas that depend on prisons for their economic survival.PrivateÃ companies that view theÃ $35 billion spent each year on correctionsÃ as creating a lucrative market, rather than imposing a drain on taxpayers. Influenced by prison industry lobbyists, some members of Congress may be persuaded to press forÃ harsher federal sentencing lawsÃ that will send more non-violent offenders to prison, while opposing prison reform and inmate rights legislation. Prison Inmate JobsÃ As the only Americans not protected from slavery and forced labor by theÃ Thirteenth AmendmentÃ to the U.S. Constitution, prison inmates have historically been required to performÃ routine prison maintenance jobs. Today, however, many inmates take part in work programs that make products and provide services for the private sector and government agencies. Typically paid far below theÃ federal minimum wage, inmates now build furniture, make clothing, operate telemarketing call centers, raise and harvest crops, and produceÃ uniforms for the U.S. military. For example, the signature line of jeans and t-shirts PrisonÃ BluesÃ is produced by inmate-workers at the Eastern Oregon Correctional Institute. Employing more than 14,000 inmates nationwide, one government-managed prison labor agency produces equipment for the U.S. Department of Defense. Wages Paid to Inmate WorkersÃ According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), inmates in prison work programs earn from 95 cents to $4.73 per day. Federal law allows the prisons to deduct up to 80% of their wages for taxes, government programs to assist crime victims, and the costs of incarceration. Prisons also deduct small amounts of money from inmates required to pay child support. In addition, some prisons deduct money for mandatory savings accounts intended to help convicts become re-established in the free community after their release. After deductions, participating inmates netted about $4.1 million of the $10.5 million total wages paid by prison work programs from April toÃ JuneÃ 2012, according to the BLS. In privately-run prisons, inmate workers typically make as little as 17 cents per hour for a six-hour day, a total of about $20 per month. As a result, inmate workers in federally-operated prisons find their wages quite generous. Earning an average of $1.25 an hour for an eight-hour day with occasional overtime, federal inmates can net from $200-$300 per month. The Pros and ConsÃ Proponents of the prison-industrial complex argue that rather than unfairly making the best of a bad situation, prison work programs contribute to the inmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ rehabilitation by providing job training opportunities. Prison jobs keep inmates busy and out of trouble, and money generated from the sales of prison industries products and services help maintain the prison system, thus easing the burden on taxpayers. Opponents of the prison-industrial complexÃ contendÃ that the typically low-skill jobs and minimal training offered by prison work programs simply do not prepare inmates to enter the workforce in the communities to which they will eventually return after their release. In addition, the growing trend toward privately-operated prisons has forced states to pay for the cost of contracts for outsourced incarceration. Money deducted from wages paid to inmates goes to increase the profits of the private prison companies rather than decreasing the cost of incarceration to taxpayers. According to its critics, the effect of the prison-industrial complex can be seen in the stark statistic that while the violent crime rate in theÃ United States has fallen by aboutÃ 20% since 1991, the number of inmates in U.S. prisons and jails has grown by 50%. How Businesses View Prison LaborÃ Private sector businesses that use inmate workers profit from significantly lower labor costs. For example, an Ohio company that supplies parts to Honda pays its prison workers $2 an hour for the same work regular unionÃ autoÃ workersÃ are paid $20 to $30 an hour. Konica-Minolta pays its prison workers 50 cents an hour to repair its copiers. In addition, businesses are not required to provide benefits like vacations, health care, and sick leave for inmate workers. Similarly, businesses are free to hire, terminate, and set pay rates for inmate workers without the collective bargaining limitations often imposed byÃ labor unions. On the downside, small businesses often lose manufacturing contracts to prison industries because they are unable to match the low production costs of a vast pool of low-paid convict workers. Since 2012, several small companies that had historically produced uniforms for the U.S. military have been forced to lay off workers after losing contracts to UNICOR, a government-owned prison labor program. Civil Rights Civil rights groups argue that the practices of the prison-industrial complexÃ lead to the building, expanding prisons mainly for the purpose of creating employment opportunities utilizing prisoner labor at the expense of the inmates themselves. For example, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) contends that the prison-industrial complexÃ¢â¬â¢s drive for profit through privatization of prisons has actually contributed to the continued growth of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s prison population. In addition, the ACLU argues that the construction of new prisons solely for their profit potential will ultimatelyÃ resultÃ inÃ the often unjust and lengthy imprisonment ofÃ millionsÃ of additionalÃ Americans, with a disproportionately high number of the poor and people of color being jailed.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Classroom Grading - Essay Example Teachers struggle to balance achievement, effort, talent, student background, and context, and seem hesitant to make their criteria explicit and public for fear of losing the ability to individualize their grading practices. However, in their struggles to be fair to individual students and to use grades for motivational purposes, teachers may not realize that they are not holding all students to the same standards. Blanke (1999) admits "The ethics of grading begins with a determination of the educator's goals" (136). According to Marzano (2000), grades are needed for: (a) administrative purposes to control students' performance; (b) for instructional planning, (c) feedback for students; (d) "guidance to students about future course work" (e) motivational purposes (45). Concerns about consistency of grading have received the most empirical attention in large scale programs rather than in classroom assessments. Marzano (2000) explains that: "there is no right way or wrong way to design grades, there are ways that fit best with a given set of assumptions or beliefs" (47). The grades should include academic achievements of the students and their efforts during the course. The grades should evaluate thinking and reasoning skills, work completion and participation (Marzano 35).